The following are resources useful to the GP in a consultation regarding infant feeding:
Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocols Clinical evidence-based protocols on a range of clinical topics, developed by the US-based international organisation for Physicians with an interest in supporting breastfeeding.
RCPCH Early Years UK-WHO Growth Charts and Resources Information and guidance from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health on using the WHO Growth Charts which form part of the Child Health Record.
Relevant NICE Guidelines
- NICE Guidelines PH11: Maternal and Child Nutrition Updated 2014
- NICE Guidelines CG37: Postnatal Care up to 8 Weeks After Birth Updated 2015
- NICE Guidelines QS37 Care: Quality Statement on Breastfeeding Updated 2015
- NICE Guidelines QS37 Postnatal Care: Quality Statement on Formula Feeding Updated 2015
- NICE CKS: Breastfeeding Problems Revised 2017
- NICE CKS: Mastitis and Breast Abscess Revised 2018
- NICE Guidelines IPG149: Division of Ankyloglossia (Tongue-Tie) for Breastfeeding December 2005
- NICE Guidelines ng1: Gastro-oesophageal Disease in Babies and Young Children: Diagnosis and Management January 2015
- NICE Guideline NG75 Faltering Growth: Recognition and Management of Faltering Growth in Children September 2017
- NICE Guidelines CG98: Jaundice in Newborn Babies Under 28 days Updated 2016
- NICE CKS: Jaundice in the Newborn November 2015
- NICE CKS: Cows’ Milk Protein Allergy in Children Revised 2015
- NICE CKS: Colic- Infantile Revised 2017
- NICE Guideline CG99: Constipation in Children and Young People- Diagnosis and Management Updated July 2017
- NICE CKS: Constipation in Children June 2019
- NICE Guidelines CG93: Donor Milk Banks Service Operation – Serological Testing of Donors February 2010
NICE Guideline PH11: Maternal and Child Nutrition- Prescribing Highlights the issue that specialist sources of information should be sought (beyond the British National Formulary) for information on the safety of drugs in Breastmilk.
NICE Guideline CG 192: Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health- Clinical Management and Service Guidance Updated April 2018- Includes recommendations regarding infant feeding in the context of perinatal mental health problems and prescribed psychotropic medication.
The Breastfeeding Network – Drugs in Breastmilk Information Factsheets The Breastfeeding Network’s Specialist Pharmacist Dr Wendy Jones has produced a range of factsheets compiling the evidence base for the use of many drugs in lactation, suitable for parents to refer to and also accessible to healthcare professionals.
The Breastfeeding Network Drugs in Breastmilk Information Service Support for parents and healthcare professionals providing evidence based information on the safety of drugs in lactation via email and a dedicated Facebook page.
UK Drugs in Lactation Advisory Service (UKDILAS) Provided by UKMi (part of the NHS Specialist Pharmacy Service) supporting safe use of medicines during breastfeeding. Every drug within the BNF has been risk assessed and individual drug entries included on the website. More detailed information is provided for some medicines via UKMi Q&As.
UK Drugs in Lactation Advisory Service (UKDILAS): Drugs in Lactation Evidence Summaries Critical evaluations of the evidence relating to the safety and risk of using medicines in breastfeeding mothers.
Lactmed (US National Library of Medicine) The Drugs and Lactation Database of the US National Library of Medicine. A smart phone app is also available.
National Infant Feeding Support Organisations
See also our page on UK Infant Feeding Support
National Breastfeeding Helpline Funded by Public Health England and the Scottish Government, the National Breastfeeding Helpline offers independent, non-judgmental support from trained volunteers. The Helpline operates from 9:30am to 9:30pm every day of the year and the number is available in the Child Health Record (the ‘Red Book’).
Association of Breastfeeding Mothers (ABM) A charity which trains breastfeeding peer supporters, breastfeeding counsellors and health professionals and provides a range of information on breastfeeding issues. Support options are listed here.
The Breastfeeding Network (BfN) A charity which trains peer supporters and breastfeeding supporters who work in locations nationwide. It also provides breastfeeding factsheets and runs the Drugs in Breastmilk Information Service (see above). Support options are listed here.
La Leche League GB (LLLGB) A charity providing breastfeeding support via telephone, online, and through a network of local support groups. LLLGB also provides extensive information on breastfeeding problems. Support options are listed here.
The NCT A charity which trains peer supporters and breastfeeding counsellors, runs antenatal and postnatal classes and provides information on a range of maternity and parenting issues, including infant feeding. Support options are listed here and include the Baby Café network.
Lactation Consultants of Great Britain (LCGB) The professional organisation for International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs). IBCLCs use their specialist skills within the NHS including in service lead roles, infant feeding clinical education, and many deliver specialist services supporting mothers and babies with complex feeding situations. There are also IBCLCs working in private practice. The LCGB site includes a directory of IBCLCS working across the UK in the NHS and in private practice, and a link to the International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners (IBLCE) Registry where professional certification can be verified.
Unicef UK Baby Friendly Initiative The UK branch of the accreditation programme of Unicef/World Health Organisation, designed to support breastfeeding and parent infant relationships by working with public services to improve standards of care. The website provides resources include clinical tools, patient information leaflets and demonstration videos.
Association of Tongue-Tie Practitioners Includes a directory of practitioners who can assess for and divide tongue-tie. Use the drop-down menu on the map to locate NHS or private practitioners by region.
Infant Milks and Bottle Feeding Information
First Steps Nutrition Trust: Infant Milks in the UK- A Simple Guide (scroll down to the blue report).
First Steps Nutrition Trust: How Much Milk is Needed and How to Make it up Safely See Chapter 6 in the green report ‘Infant Milks in the UK- a Practical Guide for Health Professionals’. Includes tables of the milk volumes required by age if formula feeding.
NHS Website: How to Make up Baby Formula Step by step instructions
Early Nutrition Information
NHS Start4Life The official NHS information service on healthy nutrition for pregnant women, new mothers and babies. Start4Life is informed by the latest research by the WHO and is aligned with NICE guidelines and Unicef’s Baby Friendly Initiative.
First Steps Nutrition Trust Impartial evidence-based information on infant nutrition, including information about infant milks for healthcare providers and parents.
Local Infant Feeding Information Board (LIFIB) Multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals based in the northwest of England which critically appraises information and research on infant feeding issues (eg colic, reflux and CMA), producing summaries for healthcare professionals.